Finland: Hyytiala

Latitude: 61.847413
Longitude: 24.294779

The mast of SMEAR II from side and top; new measurement tower
The mast of SMEAR II from side and top; new measurement tower

  • Network: CarboEurope IP
  • Principal investigator: Albert Porcar-Castell
  • PI-affiliated institution: University of Helsinki
  • Primary IGBP ecosystem type: Evergreen Needleleaf Forests
  • Dominant plant functional type: Evergreen Needleleaf trees
  • Recent and historic disturbance and management events that may affect this site:
    • Forestry: Forest management such as logging of any kind, plantation planting, or herbicide application.
    • Stand of Pinus sylvestrs planted in 1962. It is of the Vaccinium type according to the Cajander site class system. It has a typical growth rate of 8 m3/ha/yr. Between January and March 2002, an area of 4.33 ha was manually thinned according to the forest management guidelines for a first commercial thinning. Before the thinning, the height of the dominant stand was around 14 m and the all-sided needle area 8m2/m2 after thinning area was 6m2/m2. The tree biomass is about 68 t/ha (above- and below-ground).
  • Flux data collection:
    • Start date: April 1996
    • End date: Ongoing
  • Flux methods:
    • Eddy covariance
  • Optical data collection:
    • Start date: February 2002
    • End date: Ongoing
  • Data collection period: Continuous operation: Variable collected continuously with the reported method.
  • Data scale: Leaf, Stand
  • Collection methods: Tower, Manual
  • Types of data collected: PAR, PYR, Various optical data including: Leaf pigment contents(2002-ongoing); Monthly leaf level chlorophyll Fluorescence (Feb 2002)- Weekly; Shoot-level reflectance spectra during spring recovery (2002-2005)- Continuous; Canopy PRI (since 2006)-Continuous; Leaf level Chl Fluorescence (since 2007)-Monthly; Leaf level reflectance spectra (March 2009 onwards)
  • Publications
    • Tanja S, Berninger F, Vesala T, Markkanen T, Hari P, Mäkelä A, Ilvesniemi H, Hänninen H, Nikinmaa E, Huttula T, Laurila T. Air temperature triggers the recovery of evergreen boreal forest photosynthesis in spring. Global change biology. 2003 Oct;9(10):1410-26.
    • Mäkelä A, Pulkkinen M, Kolari P, Lagergren F, Berbigier P, Lindroth A, Loustau D, Nikinmaa E, Vesala T, Hari P. Developing an empirical model of stand GPP with the LUE approach: analysis of eddy covariance data at five contrasting conifer sites in Europe. Global change biology. 2008 Jan;14(1):92-108.
    • Lindroth A, Lagergren F, Aurela M, Bjarnadottir B, Christensen T, Dellwik E, Grelle A, Ibrom A, Johansson T, Lankreijer H, Launiainen S. Leaf area index is the principal scaling parameter for both gross photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration of Northern deciduous and coniferous forests. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology. 2008 Jan 1;60(2):129-42.
    • Dal Maso M, Kulmala M, Riipinen I, Wagner R, Hussein T, Aalto PP, Lehtinen KE. Formation and growth of fresh atmospheric aerosols: eight years of aerosol size distribution data from SMEAR II, Hyytiala, Finland. Boreal environment research. 2005 Oct 24;10(5):323.


Flux data repository: